Isolation rooms are specific rooms within a hospital that are designed to control the spread of airborne infectious diseases to patients, staff, and visitors. There are two different types of isolation rooms that are used in hospitals.
第一种类型的隔离室被指定为一个airborne infectious isolation room(AII or AIIR). These rooms are designed to contain diseases from spreading to other parts of a facility by keeping the room in a negative air pressure relative to the outside air. By keeping the airborne infectious isolation room (AII or AIIR) at a negative pressure, this ensures that only clean air enters the room. Additionally, any contaminants in the air from coughing or sneezing are filtered and sent outside through an exhaust system.
这second type of isolation room is called a保护环境室(PE or PER). In this type of room, the air inside the room is pressurized, and ultimately acts as the opposite of an airborne infectious isolation room. A protective environment room is used to shelter a high-risk immunocompromised patient from contracting a disease or virus that might be brought in by another patient or be transmitted through the air.
几种设备用于确保机载的传染性隔离室符合CDC设计要求以及ASHRAE标准170.，卫生保健设施的通风。这CDC设计要求for airborne infection isolation rooms (AII or AIIR) requires:
Use of negative pressure rooms with close monitoring of air flow direction using manometers or temporary or installed visual indicators placed in the room with the door closed
这se design requirements can be met by the use of peripheral sensors measuring pressure, air flow, or humidity mounted in and around the airborne infectious isolation room. These devices provide measurements of current conditions and provide a linear signal back to a building management system (BMS). The software in the BMS maintains room design requirements by demanding additional air flow from the building’s HVAC equipment as needed.
最简单的设备是空气差压计，例如DwyerSeries 2000Magnehelic® orDM-1000系列DigiMag® gage. These devices provide local indication of the pressure difference between the isolation room and corridor through the use of a pressure pickup port. These gages will allow patients and medical staff to quickly and visually see whether or not the room is negatively pressurized. These devices are well suited for pop-up isolation rooms, as they do not require power to function while providing a quick visual indication of the pressurization status of the isolation room.
If you are looking for an analog signal that can be integrated into a building management system or facility management system, a better solution would be to use an air differential pressure transmitter such as Dwyer’s系列女士Magnesense® transmitters orDH系列Digihelic®控制器。配备可选显示器时，这些设备将显示局部压力读数，同时还向BMS提供线性输出信号。这确保了对隔离室的适当空气流动。
这best solution for monitoring pressure in isolation rooms would be a room pressure monitor such as Dwyer’sSeries RSM。该设备提供隔离室和走廊之间的压力水平的本地指示，同时还向BMS提供线性输出信号。房间压力监视器还配备了警报功能，以通知患者和医务人员发生压力变化。这些设备还包括门状态指示，有助于通知医疗人员当房间由于隔离室门和走廊之间的密封而落在所需的压力水平之外。
Isolation Room Air Flow Monitoring
Air flow is another critical and required component in the design and construction of isolation rooms. Each isolation room is required to have a minimum of 6 ACH (Air Changes per Hour) for existing facilities or greater than or equal to 12 ACH for areas under renovation or for new construction per CDC and ASHRAE guidelines. This means that the total volume of air in the isolation room needs to change over a minimum of 6 to 12 times per hour depending on when the hospital was constructed.
To verify that the isolation room is in compliance with the air changes per hour requirement, contractors would install an air velocity sensor on the supply and exhaust air from the isolation room. By measuring the velocity of air entering the room as well as the velocity of air exiting the room, a calculation using the room volume leads to the verification of the air changes. For more information on how air changes are calculated reference our blog post"What is ACH and Why is it Important?"
测量空气流量的其他常见方式是具有温度的传感器，称为热风计或热线风速计。与参考温度传感器相比，该技术从温度传感器拉动的能量与温度传感器之间的能量之间的相关性工作。有关风脚如何工作的更多信息，请参阅我们的博客文章"Understanding Air Velocity Sensors."
这AVLV系列和avul.air velocity transmitters were designed to simplify the process of taking air velocity measurements. Unlike pressure based air velocity sensors, these devices provide a linear velocity output signal that can be paired directly with the building management system or facility management system and do not require an additional air differential pressure sensor.